Literacy tests were used to exclude immigrants even during the uncertain period of war with Germany and Austria. Rather than rely on immigrant labor from Italy or Mexico, steps were taken to reduce the number of available foreign workers. So great was the need for labor in agriculture and industry that the daily wage rose quickly in the month following Wilson's call to arms.
An additional event took place in 1917: Congress granted full U.S. citizenship rights to the citizens of Puerto Rico - but they didn't move to New York until the Fifties. Click here to read about their integration.