"The Reich's great chemical industry went into high gear immediately, and at this point Ersatz became the big little word of the German language. Natural rubber was replaced by Buna, a synthetic product said to be less sensitive to heat and more durable. Wine bottles were capped with wood and a cellophane-like wrapper, as a substitute for cork and lead foil. The liquefaction of coal produced a motor fuel. Zellwolle, a cellulose wool, became the new hope of the textile manufacturers. Ingenious Reich chemists even derived a high-protein yeast from wood, and this went right to hungry Reich milch cows."
Click here to read about one of the greatest innovations by 20th Century chemists: plastic.