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Benito Mussolini - Ethiopia

''War Fears in Italo-Ethiopia Rift'' (Literary Digest, 1935)

A report on the start of the Italian adventures in Ethiopia:

"The dispute arose over alleged trespasses by Ethiopians on Italian possessions in Eritria and Italian Somaliland, in East Africa."

"A solemn declaration of Abyssinia's peaceful intentions toward Italy was read in broken but emphatic Italian to representatives of the foreign press in Rome by the nervous and impassioned Negradsa Yesus, Abyssinian Charge d' Affaires. In fervent tones he asserted that Abyssinia's intentions were so peaceful 'that if Italy remained without a single soldier and without a single gun in her colonies, Abyssinia would not touch a single stone.'"

Mussolini explained why he invaded Ethiopia in this article...


The Italian Conquest of Ethiopia (Literary Digest, 1937)

A column about Mussolini's Minister of Colonies, Emilio De Bono (1866 1944) and his popular book, "La Preparazione E Le Prime Operazioni:

"Last week, with the appearance of a third printing, following a sold-out second edition (both of which were marked for publication in 1937), Italians at home and abroad noted certain deletions, including the passage which intimated that Mussolini had been on the point of abandoning his campaign in the face of British armed intervention."


Massacre (Pathfinder Magazine, 1937)

"Late last week 30 prominent Ethiopians were tried as ringleaders in the attempted assassination [of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani]. They were to serve as "public examples" of Italy's determination to rule over her new African domain. All other natives found in possession of arms were shot by Fascist firing squads, more than 1,000 terrified men being mowed down in a bloody Mussolini-ordered revenge."


''Ethiopia Smolders'' (Literary Digest, 1937)

"Italy's financial and human resources are being heavily drained, not only by a vast [Roman] road-building program in the conquered kingdom, but particularly by the efforts of 200,000 men who compose the fascist expeditionary force to pacify a warlike population of 9,000,000 natives in a territory larger than France and Italy combined."


The Passive Resistance of the Native Population (Literary Digest, 1938)

"Recently former Viceroy Graziani cabled Mussolini that 'my surveys demonstrate that tranquility is absolute. The native population is with Italy.' But a writer in the Tribuna of Rome admitted that 'nobody must delude himself with the idea that the former Shoan-Galla ruling caste have resigned themselves to the loss of their privileges and have welcomed our Italian Empire.'"


Italy Condemned (Literary Digest, 1935)

Any of us born after 1945 have seen this before: the United Nations condemns a dreadful dictator and sends him a mean email and the dictator deletes it (Sadam Hussein was condemned 17 times by the U.N.) - but this was the first time it happened in the Twenties. The League of Nations condemned Mussolini for the Ethiopia invasion, and Mussolini couldn't have cared less.


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