"Ho Chi-minh (1890 – 1969) is a frail man of 58 whose wispy beard makes him look like a sinister character out of a Fu Manchu thriller. For five years, his rice-farmers-by-day-fighters-by-night have forced France to keep an army 150,000 in Indochina. The cost: $1 million a day, or one third of France's defense budget. The significant news of Ho's October offensive was that he was using better-trained men and more powerful weapons. For that, Ho owes thanks to friends in Communist China. Jean Letourneau (1907 – 1986), French Minister of Associated States who flew to Indochina to survey the the disaster, said: 'Beyond any doubt, that is the turning point of this war."
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