The following observations were written by David H. Roseberry in his book The Psalm on the cross (2021):
"Crucifixion was invented by the Persians in the Fourth Century BC and is still regarded as the most extreme form of torture ever devised. The victim does not die from the wounds inflicted by the nails. Rather, the weight of the body does not allow for breathing; a man suffocates from crucifixion. The nails function only to pin the victim to the cross and take away every means of protection or survival... We know that King David wrote Psalm 22 ten centuries before the death of Jesus... Psalm 22 was a predictive text for Him. It told Him what was going to take place. I cannot think of another historical instance where someone was aware of the means of their death long before they died."
Verses 3o and 31 anticipate the rise of the church.
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