A black and white magazine illustration from the cover of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN that appeared six months after President Wilson's declaration of war against Germany in order to let Uncle Sam's taxpayer's understand what it will cost them to put a million and a half men in the field.
Attached, you will find a mechanical drawing made by the industrious souls assigned to the Royal Engineers in order to placate those busy-body brass-hats situated so far in the rear and having little better to do than wonder aloud as to how the Hun tended to deal with his bowel movements.
The author of
The Western Front Companion is very informative on the topic of trench latrines and tells us that as the war progressed, latrines evolved into loitering centers for those wishing to read or enjoy some solitude. In order to remedy the situation officers decided to position their front-line trench latrines at the end of short saps, closer to the enemy; the reason being that a man was less likely to tarry and would return to duty that much quicker.
These two columns recall the structure and requirements of the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps and how sincerely appreciative the French were for these young American volunteers.
This is a wonderful read in which the American World War One fighter pilot Eddie Rickenbacker (1890 - 1973), recounted his experiences in France. Arriving rather late in the game (March, 1918), he quickly racked up 26 kills, a Croix de Guerre, a Distinguished Service Cross, the Legion d'Honeur and the Congressional Medal of Honor (which would not be approved and awarded to him until 1930). He was the top Ace in the American Air Service. In his later life, he would go on to become one of the founders of Continental Airlines.
"I learned pretty fast. Long practice in driving a racing-car at a hundred miles an hour or so gives first-class training in control and judging distances at high speed..."
In his later life, Rickenbacker would go on to become one of the founders of Continental Airlines.
Click here to read an article about the development of aerial reconnaissance during W.W. I.
Read what the U.S. Army psychologists had to say about courage.
*Watch a U.S. Airforce Film About Captain Eddy Rickenbacker*
Shortly after the U.S. Congress declared war against Germany, a New York City minister named Dr. John Haynes Holmes (1879 - 1964) took to his pulpit and made a series of sound remarks as to why the United States had no business participating in the European war:
"Other clergymen may pray to God for victory for our arms -- I will not. In this church, if no where else in all America, the Germans will still be included in the family of God's children. No word of hatred will be spoken against them, no evil fate will be desired upon them. I will remember the starving millions of Belgium, Servia, Poland, and Armenia, whom my countrymen may neglect for the more important business of killing Germans..."
Two years later, many clergy members would find themselves writing articles condemning their complicity during the war; Reverend Holmes would not be among them. An early admirer of Gandhi, Holmes was also numbered among the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.).
Throughout much of World War I, the German-American war correspondent Karl Von Wiegand (1874 - 1961) reported on the goings-on within the Kaiser's Army for an American new syndicate. As "luck" would have it, he happened to be in a front line German trench when the British Army launched their enormous attack on July 1, 1916. Here is one of his earlier dispatches from the German side:
"We stood awe-stricken. Mankind, like Frankenstein, was being devoured by the monster it had created".